The effectiveness of applying landscape level fuel treatments is analysed for four different landscape conditions by using both simulation and optimization. The four landscape conditions in the Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, represent a gradient of fuel conditions ranging from light, scattered, to heavy concentrated fuels. Different strategies of applying treatments are evaluated and compared across the four landscapes. A stochastic simulation modelling system, Simulating Vegetative Patterns and Processes at Landscape Scales (SIMPPLLE) is initially applied to assess wildfire, insect and disease risks on each landscape without management treatments, but with fire suppression. These simulation results, in the form of risk ratings for each plant community, are input into the Multi-resource Analysis and Geographic Information System (MAGIS). MAGIS is an optimization modelling system for scheduling activities that reduce these risks and address other management objectives. The derived treatment schedules are used in addition to SIMPPLLE simulations to examine the impact on wildfire and other disturbance processes probability. Fuel treatment effects are quantified as changes in the predicted extent and intensity of future wildfires, impacts on other resource objectives, and the resulting economic benefits.