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Jasmine Innocent, Duncan Sutherland, Nazmul Khan, K. A. M. Moinuddin
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Fire Behavior

NRFSN number: 25491
FRAMES RCS number: 68072
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The interaction of wind and fire on a sloped terrain is always complex owing to the mechanisms of heat transfer and flame dynamics. Heating of unburned vegetation by attached flames may increase the rate of spread. The relative intensities of convective and radiative heat fluxes may change fire behaviour significantly. This paper presents a detailed analysis of flame dynamics, mode of fire propagation and surface radiative and convective heat fluxes on sloped terrain at various wind speeds using physics-based simulations. It was found that with increasing slope angles and wind velocity, the plume inclines more towards the ground and becomes elongated in upslope cases, whereas in downslope cases, the plume rises from the ground earlier. For higher wind velocities, the flame and near-surface flame dynamics appear to show rising, even though the plume is attached. The flame contour results indicate that the near-surface flame dynamics are difficult to characterise using Byram’s number. A power-law correlation was observed between the simulated flame lengths and fireline intensities. The convective heat fluxes are more relevant for wind-driven fire propagation and greater upslopes, whereas both fluxes are equally significant for lower driving wind velocities compared with higher wind velocities.


Innocent, Jasmine; Sutherland, Duncan; Khan, Nazmul; Moinuddin, Khalid A. M. 2023. Physics-based simulations of grassfire propagation on sloped terrain at field scale: flame dynamics, mode of fire propagation and heat fluxes. International Journal of Wildland Fire 32(4):513-530.

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