Climate change is causing increased wildfire activity across the western US and creating post-fire conditions that are warmer and drier than they were in the past. Scientists and managers are concerned with the potential for post-fire tree recruitment failures in dry mixed-conifer forests. Tree seedlings are more sensitive to climate conditions than adult trees, which means that even in sites dominated by mature forest prior to a fire, the post-fire conditions may be too warm and dry for seedlings to regenerate. However, the exact climate conditions necessary for regeneration have not been well established. The goal of this study was to identify how seasonal climate conditions affect post-fire ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir regeneration and growth. We also explored how reductions in canopy cover, for example through stand-replacing disturbances such as wildfire, may alter microclimate conditions for seedlings near the ground level.