Today, many tribes wish to use traditional knowledge (TK) and cultural burns in a contemporary setting to address issues of wildland fire and fuel management that have risen as a result of fire suppression policies. Here, the term TK is used in place of “TEK”, or traditional ecological knowledge, as TK is a more inclusive term that covers all aspects of how a tribe interacts with specific ecosystems. A variety of constraints prevent TK from being used. In a series of two workshops held in Montana in 2012 and 2014, discussions among a diverse community of tribal and nontribal managers, scientists, and students explored some of these constraints. The authors use this paper to highlight some challenges and solutions in applying TK and western knowledge (WK) to current approaches of wildland fire, fuels, and natural and cultural resource management.