Recovery after fire
Throughout the 20th century, forest scientists and land managers were guided by principles of succession with regard to aspen forests. The historical model depicted aspen as a "pioneer species" that colonizes a site following disturbance and is eventually overtopped by conifers. Aspen systems are more diverse, however, than previously described. Not only are there distinctive seral and stable aspen, but variations within these types require appropriate management considerations (Rogers et al. 2014). We recommend a strategic approach to aspen resilience that builds upon traditional aspen ecology and incorporates knowledge of varying aspen functional types, effective monitoring, historical disturbance ecology, and collaborative problem-solving.