Kyle Rodman, Andrew Sanchez Meador
Year Published:

Cataloging Information

Fire Ecology
Fire Effects
Ecological - Second Order
Fuel Treatments & Effects
Montane dry mixed-conifer forest

NRFSN number: 12951
FRAMES RCS number: 17328
Record updated: May 24, 2018

Reference conditions describe attributes of ecosystem structure, composition, and function and are used to inform ecological restoration efforts. Reference condition information on tree spatial patterns that occurred prior to wide-spread fire exclusion is limited for warm/dry mixed-conifer forests of the western U.S., particularly those in the Southwest. Spatial patterns of trees, and groups of trees, are important because they are known to influence understory biodiversity and productivity, fire behavior, distribution of surface fuels, wildlife habitat value, and regeneration, yet this information is rarely quantified. The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide an overview of the existing research on spatial patterns in warm/dry mixed-conifer forests, and provide recommendations of future research.


Rodman, Kyle; Sánchez Meador, Andrew. 2014. Characterizing spatial reference conditions in southwestern warm/dry mixed-conifer forests. Ecological Restoration Institute Fact Sheet. Flagstaff, AZ: Ecological Restoration Institute, Northern Arizona University. 3 p.

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