Recovery after fire
In sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) ecosystems, expansion and infilling of conifers decreases the abundance of understory perennial vegetation and lowers ecosystem resilience and resistance of the once shrub grass − dominated state. We prescribed burned or cut juniper (Juniperus spp. L.) and pinyon (Pinus spp. L.) trees at 10 sites across the western United States. We measured vegetation cover and density on untreated and treated plots 3 and 6 yr after treatment across a gradient of pretreatment tree dominance as quantified by the tree dominance index (TDI); (tree cover)/(tree + shrub + tall grass cover). We analyzed plant responses by functional group using mixed-model analysis of covariance, with TDI treated as a covariate. As tree cover increased and TDI exceeded 0.5, shrub cover declined to < 25% of the maximum on untreated plots. Although total shrub cover recovered on burned plots to untreated percentages 6 yr after treatment, sagebrush cover was still 1.1-0.6% on burned plots compared with 13.9-0.5% on untreated plots across the range of 0-1 TDI. Tall grass cover increased to 25.4-9.4% for burn plots and 24.3-22.4% on cut plots from 0-1 TDI 6 yr after treatment. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) increased on prescribed fire and on cut treatments, especially at higher pretreatment TDI. However, ratios of cheatgrass to tall grass cover were much lower on cut than burn plots. To retain the shrub, especially sagebrush, components on a site and increase ecosystem resilience and resistance through increases in tall grasses, we recommend treating at low to mid TDI using mechanical methods, such as cutting or mastication. Effects of fire and mechanical treatments implemented at different phases of tree dominance create different successional trajectories that could be incorporated into state-and-transition-models to guide management decisions.