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A JFSP Fire Science Exchange Network
Bringing People Together & Sharing Knowledge in the Northern Rockies

Ecological restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed by various mechanisms including fire. The exact methods of restoration may include a range of techniques from seeding, planting, removal of non-native plants, and more to bring the ecosystem to a new state. The publications in this subtopic address human interventions to recover ecosystems damaged by fire.

Past Events

Great Basin Consortium Conference 2020
March 17, 2020 to March 19, 2020
Intermountain Native Plant Summit IX
November 5, 2019 to November 6, 2019
Restoration of Sagebrush Ecosystems Course
March 18, 2019 to March 22, 2019
4th Central Oregon Fire Science Symposium
March 24, 2016 to March 26, 2016

Webinars/Videos

Restoring the West Lunchtime Webinar - Soils
Oct 6, 2020
Nichole N. Barger, Erin J. Hanan, Jim Archuleta
Efficacy of Post-fire Treatments
Sep 24, 2020
Peter R. Robichaud
Impact of Wildfires in the United States on Reforestation Efforts
Sep 23, 2020
Jad Daley, Jennifer Morris, Hilary S. Franz, Justin Adams
Forest & Fire Learning Series: Moving Forward
Apr 15, 2020
Chad Kooistra, Alison Layman
Lessons from the Milli Fire
Feb 26, 2019
Nicole Strong
Landscape Restoration - Part 2
Sep 23, 2018
Paul F. Hessburg

Publications/Reports

2020 Fuel treatment longevity in ponderosa pine-dominated forest 24 years after cutting and prescribed burning
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Sharon M. Hood, Christopher R. Keyes, Katelynn J. Bowen, Duncan C. Lutes, Carl A. Seielstad
2020 Restoration of Sagebrush in Crested Wheatgrass Communities: Longer-Term Evaluation in Northern Great Basin
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Kirk W. Davies, Chad S. Boyd, Jonathan D. Bates, Erik P. Hamerlynck, Stella M. Copeland
2020 Remote sensing of vegetation conditions after post-fire mulch treatments
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Viet D. Vo, Alicia M. Kinoshita
2020 Protected area stewardship in the Anthropocene: integrating science, law, and ethics to evaluate proposals for ecological restoration in wilderness
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Peter Landres, Beth Hahn, Eric Biber, Daniel T. Spencer
2020 Fire and climate change: conserving seasonally dry forests is still possible
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Scott L. Stephens, Anthony L. Westerling, Matthew D. Hurteau, M. Zachariah Peery, Courtney Schultz, Sally Thompson
2020 Forest stand and site characteristics influence fuel consumption in repeat prescribed burns
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Jacob I. Levine, Brandon M. Collins, Robert A. York, Daniel E. Foster, Danny L. Fry, Scott L. Stephens
2020 Invasive grasses: A new perfect storm for forested ecosystems?
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Becky K. Kerns, Claire Tortorelli, Michelle A. Day, Ty Nietupski, Ana M. G. Barros, John Kim, Meg A. Krawchuk
2020 Wildfire severity and postfire salvage harvest effects on long‐term forest regeneration
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Nicholas A. Povak, Derek J. Churchill, C. Alina Cansler, Paul F. Hessburg, Van R. Kane, Jonathan T. Kane, James A. Lutz, Andrew J. Larson
2020 Post-fire regeneration of endangered limber pine (Pinus flexilis) at the northern extent of its range
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Denyse A. Dawe, Vernon S. Peters, Michael D. Flannigan
2020 Long-Term Effects of Fuels Treatments, Overstory Structure, and Wildfire on Tree Regeneration in Dry Forests of Central Washington
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Allison K. Rossman, Jonathan D. Bakker, David W. Peterson, Charles B. Halpern
2020 Identifying opportunities for the use of broadcast prescribed fire on Colorado’s Front Range
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Rob Addington, Brian G. Tavernia, Michael D. Caggiano, Matthew P. Thompson, Jason D. Lawhon, John S. Sanderson
2020 Effect of a wildfire and of post-fire restoration actions in the organic matter structure in soil fractions
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Nicasio T. Jiménez-Morillo, Gonzalo Almendros, José M. de la Rosa, Antonio Jordán, Lorena M. Zavala, Arturo J. P. Granged, José A. González-Pérez
2020 Effects of two emergency stabilization treatments on main soil properties four years after application in a severely burnt area
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
María Fernandez-Fernandez, Serafín J. González-Prieto
2020 Fire and land cover change in the Palouse Prairie-forest ecotone, Washington and Idaho, USA
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Penelope Morgan, Emily K. Heyerdahl, Eva K. Strand, Stephen C. Bunting, James P. Riser, John T. Abatzoglou, Max W. Nielsen-Pincus, Mara Johnson
2020 Response of planted sagebrush seedlings to cattle grazing applied to decrease fire probability
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Kirk W. Davies, Jonathan D. Bates, Chad S. Boyd
2020 Long-Term Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Andrew T. Hudak, Leda N. Kobziar, Karen L. Riley
2020 Fire legacies, heterogeneity, and the importance of mixed-severity fire in ponderosa pine savannas
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Caleb P. Roberts, Victoria M. Donovan, Sarah M. Nodskov, Emma C. Keele, Craig D. Allen, David A. Wedin, Dirac Twidwell
2020 Fire and land cover change in the Palouse Prairie–forest ecotone, Washington and Idaho, USA
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Penelope Morgan, Emily K. Heyerdahl, Eva K. Strand, Stephen C. Bunting, James P. Riser, John T. Abatzoglou, Max W. Nielsen-Pincus, Mara Johnson
2020 Vegetation dynamics following compound disturbance in a dry pine forest: fuel treatment then bark beetle outbreak
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Justin S. Crotteau, Christopher R. Keyes, Sharon M. Hood, Andrew J. Larson
2020 Forest restoration treatments in a ponderosa pine forest enhance physiological activity and growth under climatic stress
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Alan J. Tepley, Sharon M. Hood, Christopher R. Keyes, Anna Sala
2020 Topography and fire legacies drive variable post-fire juvenile conifer regeneration in eastern Oregon, USA
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Angela Boag, Mark J. Ducey, Michael W. Palace, Joel Hartter
2020 Effects of fire on grassland soils and water: A review
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Daniel G. Neary, Jackson M. Leonard
2020 Fuel treatment effectiveness in the context of landform, vegetation, and large, wind‐driven wildfires
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Susan J. Prichard, Nicholas A. Povak, Maureen C. Kennedy, David W. Peterson
2020 Open forest ecosystems: An excluded state
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Brice B. Hanberry, Don C. Bragg, Heather D. Alexander
2020 Fine-scale fire patterns mediate forest structure in frequent-fire ecosystems
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Scott M. Ritter, Chad M. Hoffman, Michael A. Battaglia, Camille Stevens-Rumann, William E. Mell
2020 Wildfire recovery as a “hot moment” for creating fire-adapted communities
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Ronald L. Schumann, Miranda H. Mockrin, Alexandra D. Syphard, Joshua Whittaker, Owen F. Price, Cassandra Johnson-Gaither, Christopher T. Emrich, Van Butsic
2020 Restoration applications of resource objective wildfires in western US forests: a status of knowledge review
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
David W. Huffman, John Paul Roccaforte, Judith D. Springer, Joseph E. Crouse
2020 A changing climate is snuffing out post-fire recovery in montane forests
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Kyle Rodman, Thomas T. Veblen, Michael A. Battaglia, Marin Chambers, Paula J. Fornwalt, Zachary A. Holden, Thomas E. Kolb, Jessica R. Ouzts, Monica T. Rother
2020 Effects of restoration and fire on habitats and populations of western hummingbirds: A literature review
Technical Report or White Paper
John D. Alexander, Elizabeth Williams, Caitlyn R. Gillespie, Sarahy Contreras-Martínez, Deborah M. Finch
2020 Fuel treatment effectiveness in the context of landform, vegetation, and large, wind‐driven wildfires
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Susan J. Prichard, Nicholas A. Povak, Maureen C. Kennedy, David W. Peterson
2020 Small-scale water deficits after wildfires create long-lasting ecological impacts
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Rory O'Connor, Matthew J. Germino, David M Barnard, Caitlin M. Andrews, John Bradford, David S. Pilliod, Robert S. Arkle, Robert K. Shriver
2020 Fine‐scale fire patterns mediate forest structure in frequent‐fire ecosystems
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Scott M. Ritter, Chad M. Hoffman, Michael A. Battaglia, Camille Stevens-Rumann, William E. Mell
2020 The Biggest Bang for the Buck: Cost‐Effective Vegetation Treatment Outcomes Across Drylands of the Western USA
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Seth Munson, Ethan O. Yackulic, Lucas S. Bair, Stella M. Copeland, Kevin L. Gunnell
2020 Modelling the effect of accelerated forest management on long-term wildfire activity
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Alan A. Ager, Ana M. G. Barros, Rachel M. Houtman, Robert C. Seli, Michelle A. Day
2019 Guidelines for aspen restoration in Utah with applicability to the Intermountain West
Technical Report or White Paper
Stanley G. Kitchen, Patrick N. Behrens, Sherel Goodrich, Ashley Green, John Guyon, Mary H. O'Brien, David Tart
2019 Is fire “for the birds”? How two rare species influence fire management across the US
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Scott L. Stephens, Leda N. Kobziar, Brandon M. Collins, Raymond J. Davis, Peter Z. Fule, William L. Gaines, Joseph L. Ganey, James M. Guldin, Paul F. Hessburg, J. Kevin Hiers, Serra Hoagland, John J. Keane, Ronald E. Masters, Ann E. McKellar, Warren G. Montague, Malcolm P. North, Thomas A. Spies
2019 Short-interval fire erodes the resilience of subalpine lodgepole pine forests
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Monica G. Turner, Kristin H. Braziunas, Winslow D. Hansen, Brian J. Harvey
2019 Fuel dynamics after reintroduced fire in an old-growth Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
C. Alina Cansler, Mark E. Swanson, Tucker J. Furniss, Andrew J. Larson, James A. Lutz
2019 Is fire “for the birds”? How two rare species influence fire management across the US
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Scott L. Stephens, Leda N. Kobziar, Brandon M. Collins, Raymond J. Davis, Peter Z. Fule, William L. Gaines, Joseph L. Ganey, James M. Guldin, Paul F. Hessburg, J. Kevin Hiers, Serra Hoagland, John J. Keane, Ronald E. Masters, Ann E. McKellar, Warren G. Montague, Malcolm P. North, Thomas A. Spies
2019 Can’t see the random forest for the decision trees: selecting predictive models for restoration ecology
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
David M Barnard, Matthew J. Germino, David S. Pilliod, Robert S. Arkle, Cara Applestein, Bill E. Davidson, Matthew R. Fisk
2019 Post-fire recruitment of Great Basin big sagebrush species: spatial and temporal controls along regional gradients of soil temperature and moisture - JFSP Final Report
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Alexandra K. Urza, Peter J. Weisberg, Jeanne C. Chambers, Stanley G. Kitchen, Bruce A. Roundy
2019 Transient population dynamics impede restoration and may promote ecosystem transformation after disturbance
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Robert K. Shriver, Caitlin M. Andrews, Robert S. Arkle, David M Barnard, Michael C. Duniway, Matthew J. Germino, David S. Pilliod, David A. Pyke, Justin L. Welty, John Bradford
2019 Wildfires and climate change push low-elevation forests across a critical climate threshold for tree regeneration
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Kimberley T. Davis, Solomon Z. Dobrowski, Philip E. Higuera, Zachary A. Holden, Thomas T. Veblen, Monica T. Rother, Sean A. Parks, Anna Sala, Marco Maneta
2019 An assessment of fire refugia importance criteria ranked by land managers
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Anthony Martinez, Arjan J. H. Meddens, Crystal A. Kolden, Andrew T. Hudak
2019 Post-fire wood mulch for reducing erosion potential increases tree seedlings with few impacts on understory plants and soil nitrogen
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Jayne L. Jonas, Erin Berryman, Brett Wolk, Penelope Morgan, Peter R. Robichaud
2019 Phenology patterns indicate recovery trajectories of ponderosa pine forests after high-severity fires
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Jessica J. Walker, Christopher E. Soulard
2019 Could restoration of a landscape to a pre‐European historical vegetation condition reduce burn probability?
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Christopher A. Stockdale, Neal McLoughlin, Michael D. Flannigan, Ellen Macdonald
2019 Relationship between soil burn severity in forest fires measured in situ and through spectral indices of remote detection
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Jose Antonio Sobrino, Rafael Llorens, Cristina Fernández, José M. Fernández-Alonso, José A. Vega
2019 Long-Term Vegetation Recovery and Invasive Annual Suppression in Native and Introduced Postfire Seeding Treatments
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Jeffrey E. Ott, Francis F. Kilkenny, Daniel D. Summers, Tyler W. Thompson
2019 Climate and disturbance influence self-sustaining stand dynamics of aspen (Populus tremuloides) near its range margin
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Douglas J. Shinneman, Susan K. McIlroy
2019 The consequences of soil heating for prescribed fire use and fire restoration in the South - Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program
Technical Report or White Paper
Leda N. Kobziar, J. Morgan Varner, Jesse K. Kreye, Michael G. Andreu, David R. Godwin
2019 A system dynamics model examining alternative wildfire response policies
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Matthew P. Thompson, Yu Wei, Christopher J. Dunn, Christopher D. O'Connor
2019 Soil characteristics are associated with gradients of big sagebrush canopy structure after disturbance
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
David M Barnard, Matthew J. Germino, Robert S. Arkle, John Bradford, Michael C. Duniway, David S. Pilliod, David A. Pyke, Robert K. Shriver, Justin L. Welty
2019 Operationalizing resilience and resistance concepts to address invasive grass-fire cycles
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Jeanne C. Chambers, Matthew L. Brooks, Matthew J. Germino, Jeremy D. Maestas, David Board, Matthew O. Jones, Brady W. Allred
2019 Post-fire management impact on natural forest regeneration through altered microsite conditions
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Enrico Marcolin, Raffaella Marzano, Alessandro Vitali, Matteo Garbarino, Emanuele Lingua
2019 Post-fire vegetation communities in western Colorado
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
M Nikki Grant-Hoffman, James Dollerschell
2019 Taking the pulse of debris flows: Extracting debris-flow dynamics from good vibrations in southern California and central Colorado
Conference Proceedings
A. Michel, Jason W. Kean, Joel B. Smith, Kate E. Allstadt, Jeffrey A. Coe
2019 Fire regime and ecosystem responses: adaptive forest management in a changing world (Part 2)
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Daniel Moya, Giacomo Certini, Peter Z. Fule
2019 Event-based integrated assessment of environmental variables and wildfire severity through Sentinel-2 data
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Juan Picos, Laura Alonso, Guillermo Bastos, Julia Armesto
2019 Wildfire as a catalyst for hydrologic and geomorphic change
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Francis K. Rengers
2019 Contributions of fire refugia to resilient ponderosa pine and dry mixed‐conifer forest landscapes
Annotated Bibliography
Jonathan D. Coop, Timothy J. DeLory, William M. Downing, Sandra L. Haire, Meg A. Krawchuk, Carol Miller, Marc-Andre Parisien, Ryan B. Walker
2019 Post-fire soil erosion mitigation at the scale of swales using forest logging residues at a reduced application rate
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Sergio A. Prats, Oscar González-Pelayo, Flávio C. Silva, K. J. Bokhorst, J. E. M. Baartman, Jan J. Keizer
2019 Landscape and organismal factors affecting sagebrush-seedling transplant survival after megafire restoration
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Bill E. Davidson, Matthew J. Germino, Bryce A. Richardson, David M Barnard
2019 Integrating anthropogenic factors into regional-scale species distribution models - a novel application in the imperiled sagebrush biome
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Juan M. Requena-Mullor, Kaitlin C. Maguire, Douglas J. Shinneman, T. Trevor Caughlin
2019 Understanding ecological contexts for active reforestation following wildfires
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Angela M. White, Jonathan Long
2019 Potential for post-fire recovery of Greater Sage-grouse habitat
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Corinna Riginos, Thomas A. Monaco, Kari E. Veblen, Kevin L. Gunnell, Eric Thacker, David K. Dahlgren, Terry A. Messmer
2019 Tamm Review: Seedling-based ecology, management, and restoration in aspen (Populus tremuloides)
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Simon M. Landhäusser, Bradley D. Pinno, Karen Mock
2019 Alternative stable equilibria and critical thresholds created by fire regimes and plant responses in a fire‐prone community
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Adam D. Miller, Jonathan R. Thompson, Alan J. Tepley, Kristina J. Anderson‐Teixeira
2019 Peatland vegetation change and establishment of re-introduced Sphagnum moss after prescribed burning
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Alice Noble, Sheila M. Palmer, David J. Glaves, Alistair Crowle, Joseph Holden
2019 Special Issue "Ecology and Restoration of Whitebark Pine"
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
2019 High fire disturbance in forests leads to longer recovery, but varies by forest type
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Samuel Hislop, Simon D. Jones, Mariela Soto-Berelov, Andrew K. Skidmore, Andrew Haywood, Trung H. Nguyen
2019 Effect of moss crusts on mitigation of post-fire soil erosion
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Flávio C. Silva, Diana C.S. Vieira, Els van der Spek, J. Jacob Keizer
2019 Post-fire wood mulch for reducing erosion potential increases tree seedlings with few impacts on understory plants and soil nitrogen
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Jayne L. Jonas, Erin Berryman, Brett Wolk, Penelope Morgan, Peter R. Robichaud
2019 Past tree influence and prescribed fire exert strong controls on reassembly of mountain grasslands after tree removal
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Charles B. Halpern, Joseph A. Antos, Shan Kothari, Annette M. Olson
2019 Coupling wildfire spread and erosion models to quantify post-fire erosion before and after fuel treatments
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Michele Salis, Liliana Del Giudice, Peter R. Robichaud, Alan A. Ager, Annalisa Canu, Pierpaolo Duce, Grazia Pellizzaro, Andrea Ventura, Fermin Alcasena-Urdiroz, Donatella Spano, Bachisio Arca
2019 What drives ponderosa pine regeneration following wildfire in the western United States?
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Julie E. Korb, Paula J. Fornwalt, Camille Stevens-Rumann
2019 Lick Creek Demonstration-Research Forest: 25-Year Fire and Cutting Effects on Vegetation & Fuels - JFSP Final Report
Technical Report or White Paper
Christopher R. Keyes, Sharon M. Hood, Anna Sala, Duncan C. Lutes
2018 Insect communities in big sagebrush habitat are altered by wildfire and post‐fire restoration seeding
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Ashley T. Rohde, David S. Pilliod, Stephen J. Novak
2018 A conservation paradox in the Great Basin—Altering sagebrush landscapes with fuel breaks to reduce habitat loss from wildfire
Technical Report or White Paper
Douglas J. Shinneman, Cameron L. Aldridge, Peter S. Coates, Matthew J. Germino, David S. Pilliod, Nicole M. Vaillant
2018 Vegetation succession in post-fire seeding treatments - Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program
Technical Report or White Paper
Francis F. Kilkenny, Jeffrey E. Ott, Daniel D. Summers, Tyler W. Thompson
2018 Influence of landscape structure, topography, and forest type on spatial variation in historical fire regimes, Central Oregon, USA
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Andrew G. Merschel, Emily K. Heyerdahl, Thomas A. Spies, Rachel A. Loehman
2018 Fire regimes approaching historic norms reduce wildfire‐facilitated conversion from forest to non‐forest
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Ryan B. Walker, Jonathan D. Coop, Sean A. Parks, Laura Trader
2018 Fuel dynamics after a bark beetle outbreak impacts experimental fuel treatments
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Justin S. Crotteau, Christopher R. Keyes, Sharon M. Hood, David L.R. Affleck, Anna Sala
2018 Adapting management to a changing world: Warm temperatures, dry soil, and interannual variability limit restoration success of a dominant woody shrub in temperate drylands
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Robert K. Shriver, Caitlin M. Andrews, David S. Pilliod, Robert S. Arkle, Justin L. Welty, Matthew J. Germino, Michael C. Duniway, David A. Pyke, John Bradford
2018 Thresholds and hotspots for shrub restoration following a heterogeneous megafire
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Matthew J. Germino, David M Barnard, Robert S. Arkle, David S. Pilliod, Matthew R. Fisk, Cara Applestein
2011 A regional experiment to evaluate effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments in the sagebrush biome - Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program
Technical Report or White Paper
James D. McIver, Hugh Barrett, Mark W. Brunson, Stephen C. Bunting, Jeanne C. Chambers, Carla M. D'Antonio, Paul S. Doescher, Dale Johnson, Sherm Karl, Steve Knick, Richard F. Miller, Michael L. Pellant, Frederick B. Pierson, David A. Pyke, Kimberly Rollins, Bruce A. Roundy, Eugene Schupp, Robin J. Tausch, David Turner, Michael J. Wisdom
2010 Restoring whitebark pine ecosystems in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Robert E. Keane, Russell A. Parsons
2000 Restoration of whitebark pine ecosystems in western Montana and central Idaho
Conference Proceedings
Robert E. Keane, Stephen F. Arno
1996 Whitebark pine ecosystem restoration in western Montana
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Robert E. Keane, Stephen F. Arno
1995 Restoration of upper subalpine whitebark pine ecosystems in western Montana
Conference Proceedings
Robert E. Keane, Stephen F. Arno, Catherine A. Stewart
1990 Recovery of lotic communities and ecosystems from disturbance - a narrative review of case studies
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
J. David Yount, Gerald J. Niemi
1986 Whitebark pine cone crops - a diminishing source of wildlife food
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Stephen F. Arno
Rice straw mulch for post-fire erosion control: assessing non-target effects on vegetation communities
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Kristen L. Shive, Becky L. Estes, Angela M. White, Hugh Safford, Kevin L. O'Hara, Scott L. Stephens
Evidence for population differentiation among Jeffrey and Ponderosa pines in survival, growth and phenology
Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Alejandra Martínez-Berdeja, Jill A. Hamilton, Aurore Bontemps, Johanna Schmitt, Jessica W. Wright