Home
A JFSP Fire Science Exchange Network
Bringing People Together & Sharing Knowledge in the Northern Rockies

Research and Publications Database

The NRFSN research and publications database leads users to regionally relevant fire science. There are more than 3,600 documents, which have been carefully categorized by the NRFSN to highlight topics and ecosystems important in the Northern Rockies Region. Categorized resources include records from the Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP), Fire Research and Management Exchange System (FRAMES), and Fire Effects Information System (FEIS).

Note: Additional Northern Rockies fire research is available from our Webinar & Video Archive.

Hints: By default, the Search Terms box reads and searches for terms as if there were AND operators between them. To search for one or more terms, use the OR operator. Use quotation marks around phrases or to search for exact terms. To maximize the search function, use the Search Terms box for other information (e.g. author(s), date, species of interest, additional fire topics) together with the topic, ecosystem, and/or resource type terms from the lists. Additional information is available in our documents on topics, ecosystems, and types.

10 results


Select a Topic, and the sub-topic terms will appear.

The Coanda effect is the phenomenon in which a jet entering quiescent fluid attaches to a nearby solid object due to inhibited entrainment of ambient fluid near the solid. Little is known about the influence of the Coanda effect on wildland fire behavior. Specifically, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how the flame attachment...
Author(s): Jonathan R. Gallacher, Brad Ripa, Bret W. Butler, Thomas H. Fletcher
Year Published: 2018
Type: Document : Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Wildland firefighters in the US are mandated to identify areas that provide adequate separation between themselves and the flames (i.e. safety zones) to reduce the risk of burn injury. This study presents empirical models that estimate the distance from flames that would result in a low probability (1 or 5%) of either fatal or non-...
Author(s): Wesley G. Page, Bret W. Butler
Year Published: 2017
Type: Document : Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Safety zones are areas where firefighters can retreat to in order to avoid bodily harm when threatened by burnover or entrapment from wildland fire. At present, safety zones are primarily designated by firefighting personnel as part of daily fire management activities. Though critical to safety zone assessment, the effectiveness of...
Author(s): Michael J. Campbell, Philip E. Dennison, Bret W. Butler
Year Published: 2016
Type: Document : Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Designation of safety zones is a primary duty of all wildland firefighters. Unfortunately, information regarding what constitutes an adequate safety zone is inadequately defined. Measurements of energy release from wildland fires have been used to develop an empirically based safety zone guideline. The basis for this work is...
Author(s): Bret W. Butler, Russell A. Parsons, William E. Mell
Year Published: 2015
Type: Document : Conference Proceedings
Current wildland firefighter safety zone guidelines are based on studies that assume flat terrain, radiant heating, finite flame width, constant flame temperature and high flame emissivity. Firefighter entrapments and injuries occur across a broad range of vegetation, terrain and atmospheric conditions generally when they are within...
Author(s): Bret W. Butler
Year Published: 2014
Type: Document : Book or Chapter or Journal Article
The current safety zone guidelines used in the US were developed based on the assumption that the fire and safety zone were located on flat terrain. The minimum safe distance for a firefighter to be from a flame was calculated as that corresponding to a radiant incident energy flux level of 7.0kW-m-2. Current firefighter safety...
Author(s): Bret W. Butler, Jason M. Forthofer, Kyle S. Shannon, Daniel M. Jimenez, David Frankman
Year Published: 2010
Type: Document : Conference Proceedings
Perhaps one of the most critical decisions made on wildland fires is the identification of suitable safety zones for firefighters during daily fire management operations. To be effective (timely, repeatable, and accurate), these decisions rely on good training and good judgement. The current safety zone guidelines used in the US (...
Author(s): Bret W. Butler, Jason M. Forthofer
Year Published: 2010
Type: Document : Conference Proceedings
One of the most critical decisions made on wildland fires is the identification of suitable safety zones for firefighters during daily fire management operations. To be effective (timely, repeatable, and accurate), these decisions rely on good training and judgment, but also on clear, concise guidelines. This article is a summary of...
Author(s): Bret W. Butler
Year Published: 2009
Type: Document : Book or Chapter or Journal Article
Firefighters are required to play close attention to fire behavior and have safety zones readily available in case of unexpected fire behavior. However, safety zone location and size are often a matter of anecdotal evidence, personal experience, and untested models. This is particularly troublesome for younger firefighters that...
Author(s): Bret W. Butler
Year Published: 2005
Type: Document : Technical Report or White Paper
In a presentation to the USDA Forest Service's national Fire and Aviation Staff, Gleason provides a clear overview of his proposed Lookouts, Communication, Escape Routes, Safety Zones (LCES) method of training firefighters for greater safety. After defining LCES, he discusses how it should be implemented on the ground. He emphasizes...
Author(s): Paul Gleason
Year Published: 1991
Type: Document : Management or Planning Document
XLSResearch and Publications Database

These resources are compiled in partnership with the Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP), Fire Research and Management Exchange System (FRAMES), and Fire Effects Information System (FEIS).