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Fire refugia and patchiness are important to the persistence of fire-sensitive species and may facilitate biodiversity conservation in fire-dependent landscapes. Playing the role of ecosystem engineers, large herbivores alter vegetation structure…
Author(s): Megan J. Dornbusch, Ryan Limb, Ilana V. Bloom-Cornelius, R. Dwayne Elmore, John R. Weir, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf
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Wildfires in the western United States (US) are increasingly expensive, destructive, and deadly. Reducing wildfire losses is particularly challenging when fires frequently start on one land tenure and damage natural or developed assets on other…
Author(s): William M. Downing, Christopher J. Dunn, Matthew P. Thompson, Michael D. Caggiano, Karen C. Short
Year Published:

This chapter assesses the current state of the science regarding the composition, intensity, and drivers of wildland fire emissions in the USA and Canada. Globally and in the USA wildland fires are a major source of gases and aerosols which have…
Author(s): Shawn P. Urbanski, Susan M. O’Neill, Amara L. Holder, Sarah A. Green, Rick L. Graw
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Wildland fires produce smoke plumes that impact air quality and human health. To understand the effects of wildland fire smoke on humans, the amount and composition of the smoke plume must be quantified. Using a fire emissions inventory is one way…
Author(s): Sam D. Faulstich, A. Grant Schissler, Matthew J. Strickland, Heather A. Holmes
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Climate change has lengthened wildfire seasons and transformed fire regimes throughout the world. Thus, capturing fuel and fire dynamics is critical for projecting Earth system processes in warmer and drier future. Recent advances in fire regime…
Author(s): Erin J. Hanan, Maureen C. Kennedy, Jianning Ren, Morris C. Johnson, Alistair M. S. Smith
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Fire is a primary disturbance in the world’s forested ecosystems and its impacts are projected to increase in many regions due to global climate change. Fire impacts have been studied for decades, but integrative assessments of its effects on…
Author(s): Jose V. Roces-Díaz, Cristina Santin, Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Stefan H. Doerr
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Soil water repellency (SWR) is a physical property due to a complex interaction of factors (e.g., fire, soil organic matter, soil texture) that reduces the soil water infiltration capacity. Traditionally, SWR is attributed to the accumulation and…
Author(s): Nicasio T. Jiménez-Morillo, Gonzalo Almendros, Ana Z. Miller, Patrick G. Hatcher, José A. González-Pérez
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In the western US, wildfires are modifying the structure, composition, and patterns of forested landscapes at rates that far exceed mechanical thinning and prescribed fire treatments. There are conflicting narratives as to whether these wildfires…
Author(s): Derek J. Churchill, Sean M.A. Jeronimo, Paul F. Hessburg, C. Alina Cansler, Nicholas A. Povak, Van R. Kane, James A. Lutz, Andrew J. Larson
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Wildfire activity is increasing in the western United States at a time when outdoor recreation is growing in popularity. Because peak outdoor recreation and wildfire seasons overlap, fires can disrupt recreation and expose people to poor air quality…
Author(s): Jacob Gellman, Margaret Walls, Matthew J. Wibbenmeyer
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Wildfire is an integral part of many ecosystems, and wildland fires also have the potential for costly impacts to human health and safety, and damage to structures and natural resources. Public land managers use various strategies for managing…
Author(s): Benjamin Simon, Christian S. L. Crowley, Fabiano Franco
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The influence of meteorological conditions on wildfire behaviour and propagation has been recognised through the development of a variety of fire weather indices, which combine information on air temperature, atmospheric moisture and wind, amongst…
Author(s): J. Sharples
Year Published:

As temperatures continue rising, the direction, magnitude, and tempo of change in disturbance-prone forests remain unresolved. Even forests long resilient to stand-replacing fire face uncertain futures, and efforts to project changes in forest…
Author(s): Monica G. Turner, Kristin H. Braziunas, Winslow D. Hansen, Tyler J. Hoecker, Werner Rammer, Zakary Ratajczak, Anthony L. Westerling, Rupert Seidl
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Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos), diffuse knapweed (C. diffusa), and yellow starthistle (C. solstitialis) are nonnative, invasive forbs that can displace native plants, reduce native plant diversity, reduce native wildlife…
Author(s): Robin J. Innes
Year Published:

In forest fires, the fire plume can heat tree crowns and cause the mortality of live vegetation, even though the surface fire spread is of low burning intensity. A lot of empirical or semi-empirical correlations have been built to link the fire…
Author(s): Kuibin Zhou, Albert Simeoni
Year Published:

As climatic changes continue to drive increases in the frequency and severity of forest fires, it is critical to understand all of the factors influencing the risk of forest fire. Using a spatial dataset of areas burnt over a 65 year period in a 528…
Author(s): Philip Zylstra, S. Don Bradshaw, David B. Lindenmayer
Year Published:

The 2018-2021 wildfire seasons were a glimpse of the future: deadly damaging fires in Mediterranean regions and high fire activity outside the typical fire season, also in temperate and boreal areas. This challenge cannot be solved with the…
Author(s): Cathelijine Stoof, Nick Kettridge
Year Published:

Safety zones (SZs) are critical tools that can be used by wildland firefighters to avoid injury or fatality when engaging a fire. Effective SZs provide safe separation distance (SSD) from surrounding flames, ensuring that a fire’s heat cannot cause…
Author(s): Michael J. Campbell, Philip E. Dennison, Matthew P. Thompson, Bret W. Butler
Year Published:

Over the last 2 years, we have continued to characterize fire activity across the country as unprecedented and recordbreaking; it has challenged our wildland fire response system and all of us who are a part of it. Of course, another factor over…
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Motivation: Rapid climate change is altering plant communities around the globe fundamentally. Despite progress in understanding how plants respond to these climate shifts, accumulating evidence suggests that disturbance could not only modify…
Author(s): Joseph D. Napier, Melissa L. Chipman
Year Published:

Background: Wildfires are increasing in size and severity in forests of the western USA, driven by climate change and land management practices during the 20th century. Altered fire regimes have resulted in a greater need for knowl‑ edge on best…
Author(s): Jesse T. Wooten, Camille Stevens-Rumann, Zoe Schapira, Monique E. Rocca
Year Published: